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Hyarama sheds unique light on the significance of Atlantis, its true history and why it became the stuff of legends. Hyarama can change our judgements in places - without denying any of the evidence.
This Broadsheet was written in 1995 by Nigel Blair, MA Oxon (1946-2005), founder of the Wessex Research Group. "I was writing... to centre on the inner nature of history..." This, Nigel hoped, would lead to a book - never completed - so here we are posthumously honouring the stupendous work Nigel did, collecting evidence.  Nigel never radically altered his theories, but his position shifted in minor ways.

Atlantis & the Advanced Prehistoric World



a great submerged megalithic civilization

the great asteroid of 8498 BC

the sinking of Atlantis

and the rising ocean

"homo sapiens sapiens"?

Ignatius Donnelly and Lewis Spence

Plato, Solon and the Egyptian priests

& the Russian Seamount photographs

a prosperous confederation

the classical writers' Atlantis

the Atlantic islands

submerged ruins at Bimini

echoes of ancient science?

ancient South America

"The distorted remains of a sunken continent"?

world legends

ancient comparative language

the Garden of Eden & the re-founders of civilization

the Ararat ship remains

worldwide flood legends

of the Sphinx

the Egyptian priests' account


the sunken continent of the Pacific

Thor Heyerdahl & ancient navigators of oceans

in western America?

The mystery of Tiahuanaco

oasis of the ancient wisdom?

"Shambhala" of the West?

"the Fortunate Isles?"

Psychic powers, crystals, slaves

more psychic than technological?

Atlantis, "ooparts" and ancient space beings

the world archetype?

in order first mentioned in text

A distinguished historian of science, at about the same time as these finds were being made, was coming quite independently to a similar conclusion. Professor Charles H. Hapgood was Professor of the History of Science at New Hampshire University. He had already written "Earth's Shifting Crust", a work much praised by no less a figure than Albert Einstein. In 1966 the Chilton Company of Philadelphia published his remarkable and much quoted "Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings: Evidence of Advanced Civilization in the Ice Age", the result of seven years' work with a team of his university students using a computer — quite an innovation for the time. A revised, British edition emerged from Turnstone Press in 1979, His findings were startling. He decoded Renaissance and Mediaeval maps, finding the most accurate were, amazingly, the oldest ones, which had come from much older source maps of forgotten origin. These ancient sources, it appeared, remembered remains of ice sheets from the Ice Age in Northern Europe; knew the shape of the Antarctic coast before it was covered with ice several thousand years B.C.; could measure longitude accurately, an ability only acquired again with Harrison's chronometer in the 18th Century; and used spherical trigonometry long before the Ancient Greeks. The maps show great changes in coastlines, suggesting planetary cataclysms of Earth - shaking proportions in the last ten to fifteen thousand years
The most famous, the Piri Reis map, was found in Constantinople, dated l5l3. Its undoubted serious inaccuracies, like joining South America to Antarctica, do not invalidate the evidence, since it was based on a wide range of other maps, some more accurate than others, and was clearly also affected by popular geographical misconceptions of the time. What it also shows, Hapgood found, is calculations, mountain ranges, coastlines, estuaries and islands (like Marajo in the Amazon estuary) which had not been discovered at the time, nor for long afterwards. Remarkably, it shows the Azores archipelago several times its present size, even after allowing for possible errors in copying: were the ancient map(s) on which it is based made in an era when either the ocean level had not risen fully (after a great catastrophe which melted much of the ice), or the Azores Plateau had not fully subsided (following the sinking of the Azores Plateau tectonic platelet)? Even more remarkable, it shows several large Atlantic islands which do not any longer exist: one, in particular, between Brazil and West Africa where the gaunt St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks now stand, Hapgood considers well confirmed by other old maps and by the shape of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge beneath it, which Piri Reis could not have known about. If this did exist, it was probably a southern arm of the Atlantean Empire.back to top

Its proximity to Brazil links up with other fascinating research. Many distinguished scholars and explorers have found extensive evidence of ancient inscriptions, buildings and sites in South America, far older than the pre-Inca and other civilizations generally accepted. These include Colonel A. Braghine, whose comprehensive "Shadow of Atlantis" was first published by Rider in 1938, and reprinted by Thorsons Aquarian as a paperback in 1980. He explored many overgrown forest areas and concluded that there were possibly some 2, 000 Phoenician or other ancient inscriptions in Brazil, largely giving directions up creeks and inlets to the nearest gold mine! Braghine, with impressive if circumstantial evidence, considered in detail two groups he thought were descended from prehistoric Atlantean colonists or refugees: The Phoenicians, an ancient Middle Eastern race of master mariners of unknown origin, and the even more shadowy Carians, the first three letters of whose name showed, he thought, affinities with other later groups like the Carthaginians of North Africa. He traces similarities with racial groups in South and Central America, the result, he thought, of escaping or colonising Atlanteans migrating both East and West from their central Atlantic homeland, a theme taken up also by Otto Muck, Charles Berlitz and Lewis Spence.
Other scholars of ancient South America include Professor Marcel Hornet, whose "Sons of the Sun" and "On the Trail of the Sun Gods" were published in 1963 and 1965 by Neville Spearman, He outlined his discovery, not only of inscriptions, but of an enormous, incredibly ancient sacred "painted rock" or "Pedro Pintada", shot through with inscribed tunnels underneath and buried in the forests of Venezuela. He felt the ancient Amazonian civilization was a direct offshoot of the Atlanteans, the "Sons of the Sun" as he thought they were known, part of their worldwide prehistoric culture. And most famous of all, of course, we have Colonel Percy Fawcett, who disappeared mysteriously in the Matto Grosso jungle in 1925, believing he was hot on the track of an ancient unknown civilisation. His son, Brian Fawcett, has edited his writings in the classic "Exploration Fawcett", published by Hutchinson in 1953, and has followed this up in 1958 with "Ruins in the Sky", describing his own further explorations and evidence.
Percy's great nephew, a dedicated seeker, Tim Paterson, who has given us two talks, has explored frequently the area where his great uncle disappeared. He feels Percy was invited into a tunnel and cave complex, many miles long, and did not die till 1959, having discovered the remnants of an incredibly ancient, and enlightened, civilization which has now passed into another dimension of matter, being only visible occasionally to local tribes as mysterious beings in white, who cannot be physically traced. These local stories have an affinity to the unearthly legends of Mount Shasta, California, and Shambhala, frequently placed in invisible realms in or above the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. Legends are of course not evidence, but usually embody deeper truths: in this case, of an elusive yet pure ancient wisdom we have even now not penetrated?
There is one startling new piece of scientific evidence. Berlitz, in his "Atlantis — the Lost Continent Revealed" publishes (facing page 128), satellite and helicopter photographs showing eight gigantic symmetrical pyramid-shaped structures, with four smaller ones, covered with dense forest on the edge of the Amazon jungle. Exploration is difficult because of the thick forest and the local tribes who, no doubt quite properly, protect them as sacred places. Nearby there are other circular and semicircular formations, thought to be massive constructions far older than any known cultures and only recently discovered by modern aerospace technology.back to top

Professor Hapgood, in "Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings", page 59, quotes the distinguished Belgian Dr. Rene Malaise. He concluded that at least parts of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, which includes the Azores Plateau, was still above sea-level at the end of the last ice age, around 10,000 B.C. He examined diatoms of fresh-water species, taken from the Ridge, that lived in a fresh-water lake when the Ridge was above sea level, which must have been, he said, in the last 10,000 to 15,000 years, as they were all recent species. Berlitz, as a professional diver, is an expert in this field. He describes in detail the topography of the Mid-Atlantic ridge which is at one of its widest points where Atlantis is supposed to have been - the distorted remains of a sunken continent? He also describes remarkable finds of tachylyte- a vitreous basaltic lava - on the sea-bed north of the Azores (mid-Atlantic islands). The scientific examination of this by Dr. Pierre Terraier of the Paris Oceanographic Institute, showed, he announced in 1911, that the Atlantic sea-bed in that area was probably on the surface not more than 15,000 years ago.
Although Termier's conclusion has been challenged since, the thesis that much of the Atlantic sea-bed was at some time on the surface is also supported by extensive other evidence , notably "cores" brought up from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1957 and the work of the U. S. Geodetic Survey on the American continental shelf. The most remarkable evidence, however, already outlined, are the actual remains of what are clearly ancient shaped stones on the sea-bed off the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Peru, Morocco, and the Russian Seamount photographs, all pre-dating the rise in ocean level of 10,000 to 12,000 years ago — which itself coincides strikingly with Plato's date of about 9,500 B.C. for the sinking of Atlantis.
Since the rise of level of probably 300-650 feet is a generally accepted fact even by the most orthodox science, we have enough scope to postulate a major Atlantean culture of near-Platonic dimensions even without envisaging the larger (Azores Plateau, Caribbean and mid-Atlantic) disappeared islands: the Atlantis theory does not depend on geologic or cosmic catastrophism! A very powerful, empire-building Atlantis could perfectly well have been distributed among the far larger Atlantic islands and far more extensive coastal continental shelf areas (on both sides) which existed before much of them were swallowed up by the gigantic, if gradual rise in sea level. The evidence, however, is increasingly in favour of catastrophism, an idea that is just now beginning to reclaim scientific favour as evidence proliferates that asteroids, comets or both caused large, recently discovered impact areas (e. g. an enormous one in Texas) and may, for example, have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago and/or the mammoths of northern Siberia 10,000-15,000 years ago. back to top

From Plato to ancient Indian Sanscrit writings, from North American Indian flood legends to the Canary Islands natives, a remarkably consistent picture emerges of "gods" and humans who in many cases escaped from a great continent variously known as "Atlas", "Aztlan", "Atlantis", "Ad" (and many other variants) which was in the East (for the American Indians) or the West (for Europeans and Egyptians), and which was catastrophically flooded. The "flood survivor" racial memory was so strong that, in the last century, some North American Indian tribes were still found to be regularly playing out an extraordinary ritual. The sole survivor reaches the village and has to go round from dwelling to dwelling asking for hospitality.
The most famous "god figure" is the Toltec, and later Aztec, ancient "white god" Quetzalcoatl — "Kuculcan" to the Mayas. His confusion with the Spanish invader, Cortes, had disastrous consequences for the Aztecs in 1519. In the legend, after bringing civilization to Mexico, he went back to Tlapallan, "The Land of the Rising Sun", his original home in the eastern sea, i. e. presumably the Atlantic. His father was Gucumatz, god of the ocean and earthquake, as was Atlas's father, Poseidon. The similarities do not stop there: in fact, they almost defy belief. Both Quetzalcoatl and Atlas came from Atlantic homes; both were founders of civilizations; each was one of twins; both were bearded; and both in legend, held up the heavens. Do we have, here, a common Atlantis legend from two supposedly completely separate civilizations? What of the Peruvian legends of their great founding hero, Manco Capac, who, with his sister/wife, suddenly appeared "from the Sun" on an island in Lake Titicaca and taught civilization? Or the Maya founding "Master of the Dawn" Ttzarana, or Zamna? The dawn, i.e. the rising sun, comes from the east, the direction of Atlantis from America; and as Professor Marcel Hornet points out, the Atlanteans were called "Sons of the Sun".
The "Codex Troanus", a book of hieroglyphs left by the Maya, is now in the British Museum, Brasseur de Bourbourg, in an admittedly controversial version, translated this to say that, 8,060 years before its compilation, two great islands were continually rocked by earthquakes and eventually sank with 64 million people. Augustus Le Plongeon equally controversially translated the inscription on the pyramid of Xochicalco, Mexico, to give a similar message. Fascinating further detail is in "The Shadow of Atlantis" by Braghine, especially chapter one.
Then there are the inexplicable similarities between buildings, pyramids, cultures, burial rituals, customs and traditions on both sides of the Atlantic - did these originate, as many of the legends imply, with a common centre of civilization, perhaps the hub of an empire which extended throughout much of the Americas, Europe and the Middle East ? Were Mesolithlc Man (8,000 to 4,000 B.C.) and Neolithic Man (after 4,000 B.C) the degenerate, or not-so-degenerate survivors of areas that had once been colonised or influenced by Atlanteans, and to which, perhaps, some of the survivors of the Atlantean catastrophe fled?  back to top

The present-day Basques, of southern France and northern Spain, think themselves descendants of Atlantis, Charles Berlitz, whose grandfather founded the Berlitz language schools, is a languages expert. In "The Mystery of Atlantis" he devotes a fascinating chapter (ten) to "Atlantis, Language and the Alphabet". He regards the Basque language (the general Iberian language before the Celtic and subsequent Roman conquests) as a possible relic of the Atlantean language. It is very ancient, and isolated, with strange affinities. It has similarities with other agglutinative languages like Quecha, the ancient Inca language, and also resembles the polysynthetic American Indian and Eskimo, but does not appear to have influenced, or been influenced by, any other language. Rather it is a sort of living fossil.... certain of its words, like "ceiling" which literally means "the top of the cavern" or "knife" which means "the stone that cuts", seem to go back to Cro-Magnon cave days, and remember that Lewis Spence thought the Cro-Magnons were escaping Atlanteans.
Spiritual words in American Indian languages, Berlitz continues, have extraordinary resemblances to ancient languages very far removed, that could only have had contact if there were some sort of prehistoric seaborne communications, "Thalassa" was "the sea" in ancient Greek: "thallac" meant "not solid" to the Mayas, and Tlaloc was the water god of the Aztecs, "Atl" means "water" in Nahuatl, the Aztec language, and also in the North African Berber language. "Manitu" is "great spirit" in American Indian, equivalent to the Hindu "Manu". The Nahuatl for "God" is "teo" or "theulh", and the Greeks have "theos" from which we get "theology". In Basque "argi" is "light", while in Sanskrit "arg" is "brilliant".
Even more strikingly, "father" is "aita" in Basque, "taita" in Quecha, "ata" in Turkic languages, "atey" in Dakota, "tata" or "tahtli" in Nahuatl, "intati" in Seminole", "Tachchu" or "tat'chu" in Zuni, "tata" in Maltese, "tatay" in Tagalog, "tad" in Welsh, "tata" in Roumanian, "thatha" or "tata" in Sinhalese, and "tata" in both Fijian and Samoan, both distant Pacific island languages, Most of these languages are linguistic islands, not sharing in the mainstream of Indo- European language development, as if they, too, are fossils of a distant past language which once united or linked them all. Was this, also, the "language of the gods" which the ancient Egyptians considered the origin of their hieroglyphs? And why is the Easter Island script so similar to the Indus valley script of more than 5,000 years ago in ancient Pakistan? Or the carvings of balsa-wood sailing craft found on recently-excavated pyramids at Tecume, in Peru, so similar to the Easter Island craft: "almost identical", to use Thor Heyerdahl1 s words faxed to the Kon-Tiki Museum, Norway, on 5th March 1992. Why, also, is the newly - discovered script of Mystery Hill, New Hampshire, U. S. A. , so similar to ancient Cretan script? back to top

Christian O'Brien, a remarkable scholar, retired in 1970 as head of the Iranian oil industry and became a full-time researcher into prehistory. He was kind enough to give our Wessex Research and Schools and Universities Networks groups several fascinating talks in 1984, Turnstone Press, part of the Thorsons Group, published his two impressive books, "The Megalithic Odyssey: A Search for the Master Builders of the Bodmin Moor Astronomical Complex of Stone Circles and Giant Cairns" in 1983, and "The Genius of the Few: The Story of Those Who Founded the Garden in Eden" in 1985. This was a major publishing event, and I remember the sheer excitement as the immensity of the implications of the thesis sank in.
Many gigantic stone structures, the thesis runs, were built within a space of only two centuries in the Third Millennium B.C., in a sudden spurt of precision building that suddenly came from previously primitive cultures: among them the Pyramids of Egypt, the great works at Avebury and Silbury Hill, the first part of Stonehenge, the early ziggurats of Mesopotamia and the advanced cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley. The first book argues for the advent in history of a race of master builders, a group originating before Sumeria,, regarded in orthodox circles as the oldest advanced Middle Eastern culture which suddenly and mysteriously learned the arts of civilization. These master builders traversed much of the World guiding, instructing and inspiring local populations, not only with building techniques but with advanced astronomical and philosophical wisdom, as is shown by the Bodmin Moor complex which O'Brien and his wife, Joy, discovered in 1978. The linguistic evidence for this is impressively assembled, with amazing similarities of place-names on their overseas journeys, including Britain, compared in detail with their Sumerian originals.
The second book, written with Joy O'Brien, is even more fascinating. It goes back to 8,000 B.C. — almost, be it noted, Atlantean times. According to Sumerian scripts which they translated in a logical, scientific way without the usual religious bias, a group of wise sages appeared, known as the "Annanage" to the Sumerians and the "Elohim" ("Shining Ones") to the early Middle East people. They settled in a fertile basin in the Southern Lebanese mountains and set up an agricultural, crop and animal genetic research centre. This was not only for their own survival but to breed a superior genetic strain of humanity and teach them the elements of civilization. Passages in the Biblical Garden of Eden story of, for example, the creation of man and woman, the apple, the serpent, the temptation and the Fall, are compared with the very similar Sumerian passages based, it seems, on the same events. These sages seem to have been exploring what was for them an unknown world. According to the O'Briens, they were inevitably made into gods by the people, in their absence, thousands of years after these "creation" events; so that, for example, the words that could be translated in a matter-of-fact way as "The Shining Ones looked on the highlands and the lowlands with pleasure" were given the far more cosmic rendering of "God made the Heaven and the Earth" — "Elohim", literally plural "the Shining Ones" (i.e. O'Brien1s sages), becoming the singular "God". They went on, say the O'Briens, to found (by their genetic work) the Hebrew race, whose purity was supposed to be maintained by fierce injunctions to maintain cleanliness, eat pure foods, and not intermix with other races. The Hebrews carried the tribal memory of their homeland as the Garden of Eden, and of their benefactors as "angels" (literally Greek "angelos" — "messengers"),
If this thesis is correct, and there was a confusion, (I would say at times only), between "The Shining Ones" and the concept of "God", I do not think this in any way prejudices the existence of a very real, universal true God, nor of its revealing itself genuinely in the Biblical (or other) scriptures; the most inspired passages very definitely show an awareness of this all-embracing consciousness, of which, surely, the sages or "Shining Ones" themselves were aware, as were most of the other great teachers of history. My concern is where these apparently very physical and scientific sages came from. One clear possibility is that they came from other planets; another, that they densified from higher planes of matter. But there is a clear, more Earthly possibility: that they came from the remnants of a once-great advanced civilization right here on this planet, and had saved sufficient of their scientific knowledge (especially of genetics) to perform the great commission, perhaps left them by their dying forefathers, of re-starting advanced life on a planet now recovering from a worldwide cataclysm.
Here one point is crucial. The O'Briens put the appearance of the first generation of these beings as at 8,000 BC. This leaves a convenient 500-1,500 years for Earth to recover from the catastrophe and the advanced remnant to reconvene, in some remote safe area, and reassemble its knowledge. What better, then, than to found a genetically advanced race which can lead the recovery, and then tour much of the world teaching how to re-found the arts of civilization with the "appropriate technology" of the time (megaliths, astronomy, agriculture, etc.)? Much of that tour led back to areas (western Europe, Britain) that would have been colonies of the sunken mother-land of which they would have had a vague but affectionate racial memory. When we consider the similarity with the persistent worldwide legends of ancient founding god-like figures like Quetzalcoatl or Atlas himself, who came from oceanic or Eastern lands, or from remote highlands or even "the Sun" or "the Heavens", the relevance to the Atlanteans, the "Sons of the Sun", becomes compelling.  back to top

Also in the Middle East, the Biblical flood legend has been the subject of massive speculation and literature. The story of Noah's epic survival of a massive flood, with his family and two of each animal, in a gigantic "ark", has long fascinated us, but had been assumed to be mythical. In early 1994 this assumption was shattered. On 30th January Jill Parsons wrote an article in "The Mail on Sunday" entitled "Is this Noah's Ark? Why scientists believe they are proving a Biblical legend", "The mountain-top site that may be one of the most sensational archaeological finds ever"; and on 13th February, Channel 4 opened their "Encounters" series with one of those programmes that really do make history, entitled "The Quest for the Ark". An archaeological team including the American, Vendyl Jones, who has devoted his life to the Ark quest, had examined a massive ship-shaped imprint near the peak of the El Judi mountain, 7,000 feet up in Turkey.
Not only is this a mere 17-20 miles from Mount Ararat (and on the same mountain range), where the Bible says the Ark was grounded after the flood subsided, but the Koran, the Muslim Holy Book, is more specific: it actually names the El Judi mountain and says the Ark landed near the peak. In Genesis, in the Bible, God instructed Noah to build an Ark 300 cubits (450 feet) long and 50 cubits (75 feet) wide, exactly the dimensions of the imprint. Even more astonishing, as given in Jill Parsons's article, these measurements are repeated in an ancient Greek account of Noah's life, according to Jones and a shipwreck specialist member of his archaeological team, David Fasold. This Greek text also gave them an ancient map reference which, together with other ancient texts, clearly indicated the Ararat range as the site for the Ark. Further, the imprint was once made of wood held together by plaster, and although the wood has rotted away, samples of the plaster remain.
The Channel 4 programme adds important details. An ancient Babylonian text is mentioned, giving directions to the Ark. Ancient stones in the area were found, with holes in the top very similar to, but much larger than, stones found on ancient sunken ships in the Mediterranean, used to stabilize the vessels by being towed behind them. On these stones are remarkable carvings: crosses, said locally to denote the presence nearby of the Ark; an ancient script; and stylised plants like olive leaves, said to portray the olive sprig which the dove brought back to Noah to show that, at last, land had appeared after his apparently unending ordeal on the waves. A nearby town is given a name which translates as "crow on the land", which could refer to the crow in the Noah story. Although not permitted to excavate as yet for fear of damaging the site, a team was filmed using special radar which could penetrate 25 feet down into the soil, It traced what could be the eerie fossilised shape of the timbers of a large ship, of exactly the Ark's size: the timbers had rotted away, but the shape of them was still visible. The Turkish government takes this all very seriously: it has declared the site an area of outstanding natural and historical interest, and has finally given permission for a proper excavation, which will happen for the first time in summer 1995.
The Biblical side is given very well in "The Ark on Ararat", by Tim LaHaye and John Morris, published by Thomas Nelson and Creation Life in the USA, 1976, and by Lakeland in Britain in 1979. They point out that the original Hebrew word which is translated "flood" implies more than this: an earth- changing cataclysm. In fact, it is the root from which we get such a concept. They also describe how Ararat remains were first sighted as early as 1856, from which time there have been increasing reports of them by about 200 individuals, all of whose stories have many conimon details, with no possibility of collusion, and despite the glacial changes that periodically alter the ice that usually has hidden the Ark imprint from view. Most strikingly, three men have found hand-hewn timbers in that area (150 miles from the nearest tree).
In "The Lost Ship of Noah: In Search of the Ark at Ararat", a very valuable book published by W. H. Alien in 1987, Charles Berlitz gives further details of the Ararat imprint. Wood fragments were found there when parts of it were dynamited in 1960. An unusual, gigantic stone slab has been found nearby with stratified lines that may be an actual fossilised part of the Ark : this, according to Fasold, was an enormous reed structure, built round a timber framework, over which a form of cement was poured to waterproof it, of a type which we know the ancient Akkadians had, Berlitz also tells the story of Fernand Navarra, the French industrialist and author of "J'ai Trouve 1'Arche do Noe", perhaps the equivalent for the Ark of Heinrich Schlieraann who discovered Troy.
It was 1955, the year of the greatest thaw point in decades: the almost perpetual ice glaciers which covered the Ararat range would be easier to penetrate than usual. After several attempts and a heroic four days and nights on the blizzard - swept western slope of Ararat, Navarra succeeded in finding evenly cut and obviously hand - tooled wooden beams under a half-melted glacier. He selected one, but found it attached to others, on what he considered the hull of the Ark, the more complete pattern of which he could see through the ice. He cut off a five-foot section. On analysis, the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture said the wood was oak. The term "gopherwood" for the Ark's wood in Genesis is thought by scientists to mean white oak. There is no white oak within 600 miles of Ararat, so it must have come by, or as part of, a vessel. They also dated it at 5,000 BC, a date later confirmed (4-5,000) through carbon-14 and other tests by the universities of Bordeaux and Madrid. Although two American universities gave much later dates, we can be fairly confident of the early dates in view of the now known tendency of carbon-14 techniques seriously to underestimate the age of objects, as described in Professor Colin Renfrew's "Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe", published by Jonathan Cape in 1973. In fact, in view of this, 4-5,000 is possibly an underestimate, especially since the deep freeze and covered condition of the wood may have inhibited the carbon-14 decay.
Excitingly, this leaves open a possible date of Atlantean or near- Atlantean antiquity. Anything of 5,000 BC or before may be relevant, since the period of global instability may have continued for as much as thousands of years after the initial asteroid impact and sinking of Atlantis. We can imagine starkly the upheaval of the tectonic plates, the giant dust cloud in the upper atmosphere only gradually dissipating, severe disruption to weather patterns, rising sea level and possible further impacts by other, lesser asteroids, comets or large meteors. There may have been, in other words, several lesser deluges following the Atlantean one (as some legends, e.g. the Hopis' of Arizona, suggest). Perhaps there were several arks, vessels carrying survivors, or ships plying an ancient seaborne trade which survived, or was rebuilt after, the catastrophe.
It seems likely that Navarra1's glaciated "hull" is one of these, as it is not the same as the Mt. El Judi imprint covered in the Channel 4 programme, which is 17-20 miles from Ararat. The widespread distribution of such wooden beams is a further indication of this. Navarra later seems to have found them in different positions on Ararat. Apparently, moreover, similar beams to Navarra1 s have frequently been found by local Kurdish or Turkish mountaineers, but are not usually reported because the presence of a great ship, or ships, on Mount Ararat is a matter of common knowledge in the area. In 1948, a "shiplike" shape was reportedly forced up by an earthquake in the field of a local farmer, Resit Sarihan, in a village to the south
of Ararat called Mahser: since this meant "doomsday" and the "ship" was thought to be a bad omen, the village name was later changed to Uzengili!  back to top

Another invaluable work, "Lost Survivors of the Deluge" by Gerhard von Hassler, was translated by Martin Ebon and published in English by Signet Books in 1978. Amongst other things, he points out that the Sumerians, In the "Epic of Gilgamesh", describe a huge ship similar in proportions to Noah's Ark, a great flood similar to Noah's, and explores the possibility that Gilgamesh sailed from Africa to the mouth of the Amazon in search of his ancestors. He describes how legends worldwide, of Greece and India, of the Incas, Mayas, Aztecs, and North American Indians, all speak of a Great Deluge which destroyed all but a few remnants of humanity — but that these remnants included the "gods" and heroes who re-taught the arts of civilization. These re-founded arts are vividly shown in two of the most ancient cities yet uncovered, dating approximately from the time of the end of Atlantis: Catal Huyuk in Anatolia, little over 1,000 kilometres from Mount Ararat, and Jericho, c, 1,200 kilometres away. So the Ararat region, clearly, as we have seen, the home of the best-known of the remnants, could have been the seed for perhaps the most prominent, but far from the only, revival. Remember, also, that the 0'Briens say their "sages" first appeared not far away, in the Lebanon highlands, and at about the same time, 8,000 BC.
Here we have, then, extraordinary evidence for the world's best-known flood and cataclysm story. God's reasons for the Flood, given in Genesis chapter six, were strikingly similar to Zeus's reasons for submerging Atlantis in Plato's account: "The imaginations of men were evil continually", including violations of God's marriage statutes; people were "lovers of violence", disobedient to, and unbelieving in, God; they refused to believe Noah, until too late, that judgement was about to come, just as Zeus appears to have caught the Atlanteans unrepentant and unprepared.
Was Noah's Flood, then, the same event that sank Atlantis in probably 8 -10,000 BC? Remember that, to Noah and his people, "the World" would have meant the Middle Eastern world as they knew it, so we do not have to read the account to mean Noah's family were the sole survivors on the whole planet. If it were the same event, it does not mean Noah was an Atlantean; he was suffering the effects of the catastrophic continuous deluge, lasting over a month, that would probably have followed the impact of Otto Muck's six-mile diameter asteroid in the Atlantic. Vast amounts of water would have been instantly vaporised and boiled, reached the upper atmosphere, and been carried by the tornado-strength winds all round the planet. On cooling it would have come down in violent torrential sheets, wiping out most civilization as it did so.
Flood legends of incredible antiquity throughout the world, including ancient China and America, show that everywhere it was regarded as a cosmic cataclysm, a judgement, a destruction followed by a renewal. These legends, and other fascinating evidence, are given comprehensively by Charles Berlitz in "Mysteries from Forgotten Worlds" (1972) and "Doomsday 1999 AD" (1981) published by Souvenir Press, as well as his Atlantis books and "The Lost Ship of Noah". These works did much to assemble the evidence and pave the way for the recent revelations. In "Doomsday 1999 AD" Berlitz relates it to apocalyptic beliefs more generally, and gives valuable analyses of the way some people and groups are currently trying to "hitch" catastrophe legends in support of their expectation of a similar world nemesis at the forthcoming end of this millennium.
There were survivors all over the planet, but as the Egyptian priests told Solon in Plato's account, most were so devastated that they lost the structure of their civilization, including the art of writing. I say "most", because a few were probably better placed, either because of their technology, or because like Noah they were forewarned in some way, or because of geography. Possibly, even, some of them were not primarily based on this planet, or in this time-space frequency, at all — or were rescued by those who were not. Were these better-placed people — for whatever reason — the ancestors of the 0'Briens1 "sages", or Manco Capac, or Quetzalcoatl, or other wise figures whose appearance to the forlorn remnants of humanity re-founded world civilizations and gave them the name of "gods"? back to top

Are the remains of the Ark, Catal Hüyük and Jericho, the Atlantic underwater finds and Hapgood’s ancient maps the only physical, as opposed to literary or legendary, evidence of Atlantean-period advanced civilization? Until 27th November 1994, most people would have said yes. On the evening of that day, however, everything changed. The BBC-2 "Timewatch" programme for that evening was a bombshell. Entitled "The Age of the Sphinx", it featured an adventurous, spiritually-minded and unorthodox American Egyptologist, John Anthony West, who until then had been best known for an excellent study of Ancient Egypt, "Serpent in the Sky", published by Turnstone in 1979. He started by proving, to his own satisfaction and that of a police identification expert, that the face on the Sphinx was not that of the son of Chephren, the Pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid, and through whom the Sphinx has received its orthodox dating in the 3rd Century BC, He went on to ask Robert Schoch, Professor of Geology at Boston University, specialising in rain erosion, to examine the Sphinx.
Schoch quite independently put its date at 5-7,000 BC, since the erosion, previously overlooked, could not have happened with the very slight rainfall in Egypt after that time. Schoch points out (as given in an "Independent" article in 1992) that stone remains of this period have been found elsewhere, in Turkey and Palestine; and further states that it may be before this period, since erosion rates often happen "non-linearly"; in other words, the deeper the weathering, the slower it may progress, since it is protected by the outer layer of the stone. This is revolution enough, and we are already in the near-Atlantean period, when re-founded or surviving remnants of Atlantean civilization may have been widespread and powerful: quite enough so to have brought about the worldwide seaborne trade that Hapgood's ancient maps, the Ararat timbers, and cities like Catal Huyuk and Jericho, suggest. In other words, we have a civilization quite advanced enough to have built the Sphinx and, if it did so, clearly it was the precursor of the Ancient Egypt we know so well.
West himself is not content with this: he dates it at the earliest at 8-10,000 BC, when the precession of the equinoxes would have been such that the paws would have been pointing to the midsummer sunrise. This was a point of great importance to the Egyptians, as well as to the builders of great monuments elsewhere, such as Stonehenge, (John Ivimy, in "The Sphinx and the Megaliths", published by Turnstone in 1974, thinks that the importance was indeed so great that the ancient Egyptians themselves brought the practice to the western megaliths, including (midwinter sunrise) to Newgrange near Dublin in Ireland, which is at least 4,500 BC, ) But for West, even 8-10,000 BC is latest possible date for the Sphinx. He claims (as reported in the "Independent" article, 1992) that its extreme water weathering patterns suggest it already existed during the climatic conditions that followed the break-up of the Ice Age between about 15,000 and 10,000 BC. If this is true, we have a sensation, overturning all orthodox preconceptions; a real Atlantean-period Sphinx -- an advanced prehistoric Egypt. This was probably not a colony of Atlantis (as Ignatius Donnelly and others had suggested), but co-existed with it, standing proudly independent, as did prehistoric Greece. This would be striking confirmation of the literal truth of Plato's account based, remember, on what the Egyptian priests of Saïs told Solon, reading from their own hieroglyphs ancient even then, written on a stone column.back to top

The first part of their account is often overlooked. One of the best translations and commentaries is in Otto Mück1 s "Secret of Atlantis", first chapter. It tells us vital information about the really ancient world before the catastrophes, and the catastrophes themselves. The priests said the Greeks (of 571 BC, when Solon visited them) were all like children, for they had no really ancient knowledge. Many disasters have hit humanity, in various ways ("and it will continue in the future"), of which the greatest are by fire and water and the lesser ones by "a thousand other causes". The Greek legend of Phaëthon and Helios, in which Phaëthon caused a terrible conflagration on Earth by failing to control the sun chariot and falling to Earth struck by Zeus' s thunderbolt, was, they said, not mere fable but an account of "the deviation from their courses of the stars in the heavens that revolve round the Earth" and "the destruction by much fire of everything on Earth". When it is thus by fire the uplanders are the main victims, but Egypt is saved from this "as it is in all other things" by the Nile, which bursts its banks. When the disaster is by deluge, the town and coastal people, like the Greeks, suffer, but again Egypt is saved, or less affected, since there are no hills or mountains from which the water can sweep down and carry them away to the sea as elsewhere.
In other words, the Egyptian priests tell us that they have an unusually safe land, which is "why the tradition preserved among us is considered the most ancient", and all the "beautiful, great, or significant events that take place among you, or us, or anywhere else" is recorded "wholly and fully in our temples", as word is received, and "preserved for posterity". But "with you [Greeks] and the others" [who, we wonder!] everything has only recently started again through written documents and the mechanisms of the state. After a regular period "the heavens open up on mankind again" and sweep away all but the ignorant, and "you will be as it were made young again", knowing nothing of the ancient past.
The Greeks in particular, the priests said, remember only one deluge, although there have been many previous ones; therefore forgetting their own ancient, most glorious race, because they have gone for many generations without written records. These were the Greeks who, after all others had defected, beat the Atlanteans and restored the freedom of all those in the Mediterranean area, after which came the "violent earthquakes and floods" which destroyed the Greeks, as well as Atlantis "in a single dreadful day and a single dreadful night". They said Atlantis had ruled Libya (North Africa) "as far as the borders of Egypt", Europe "as far as Tyrrhenia" and "parts" of the "continent" (America) on the "other side" of and "enclosing" the "sea which may properly be called an ocean" beyond the "Pillars of Hercules" (Straits of Gibraltar). Compared with this, they said, all that is situated on this side of the Straits (Gibraltar) "appears like a bay with a narrow entrance".
We can now see the priests' account, as reported in Plato, as not merely the story of Atlantis. It is an outline of the Mediterranean and Atlantic ancient world more generally, and the frequent cataclysms that affected it, increasingly being confirmed by new research. We do not need to speculate too much. The Greeks have conveniently translated for us the account written in stone, by the civilization which had taken it upon itself to be the chroniclers of civilization. The picture that emerges is one of a vigorous, varied and prosperous world, with extensive seaborne trade, large armies and navies, advanced agriculture, metal-working, writing, sophisticated astronomy including knowledge of the spherical Earth, largely accurate world maps, and advanced forms of government. There were evidently many smaller states and at least three major regional powers — Atlantis, Greece and Egypt. It is clear from the account that Egypt was not an Atlantean colony at that time, but bordered the eastern edge of the Atlantean empire. Most, with some exceptions including Egypt, were subject to periodic destruction by planetary bodies, earthquakes and floods.back to top

Further east, India and China, their legends suggest, were also advanced, before suffering catastrophes, after which they were reconstructed. India has extraordinary legends of unknown antiquity in the "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana", including great civilizations, heroes and heroines both godlike and more fallible, descriptions of flying machines and how to make them, and terrifying accounts of cataclysms and warfare with exotic weapons, some of the effects of which suggest nuclear war. Rene Noorbergen, in "Secrets of the Lost Races", published by New English Library in 1978, gives extensive evidence for China and the Pacific region. He gives accounts of Chinese experimental flying craft (pages 107-8), ancient patches of fused quartz suggesting nuclear detonations (page 125) and, evidence from an ancient geographical treatise. Called the "Shan Hai King", "The Classic of Mountains and Seas", and dated 2,250 BC, it includes detailed surveys of Western North America, with recognizable items like the Rocky Mountains and even the Grand Canyon.
Most significant, however, are legends of lost races of distant epochs who were in some way punished or removed, often by floods. The ancient Chinese realized that before them were "giants", "men twice as tall as us", who once lived in the "realm of delight", but lost this by not living "by laws of virtue" (page 34); also there was a race of primitive degenerates who "troubled the Earth" and had to be exterminated (page 152). A familiar theme already: but on pages 14 and 15 Noorbergen quotes legends that all Chinese are direct descendants of an ancient ancestor called Nu-wah, who overcame a great flood: this has given the Chinese language several words that can only be traced to Nu-wah and the flood. Nu-wah reconstructed the world after its destruction by the flood. This is just one of over thirty flood legends Noorbergen says have been discovered in the Orient. back to top

The Pacific itself is rich in them. Hawaiians, for example, also have a similar legend, this time of Nu-u, who was the one righteous man allowed, with his family, to escape, by building a great canoe with a house on it, after the Hawaiian god had destroyed the Earth. As with the Noah legend, a rainbow was the sign of the waters subsiding, and Nu-u and his three sons repopulated the Earth. The similarity with the Biblical and Sumerian legends is beyond coincidence. The Pacific is also, of course, home to the greatest lost-continent legend outside Atlantis: that of Lemuria, or Mu, the fabled ancient lost land which broke up and sank probably millennia before Atlantis. Lacking a reliable account like Plato's, we have to depend on myth and circumstantial evidence: this has been described by Colonel James Churchward in his series of "Mu" books published by Neville Spearman, The best single analysis of it is probably in Lewis Spence1 s excellent and now rare book "The Problem of Lemuria: The Sunken Continent of the Pacific", published by Rider in 1933. He presents evidence attesting the existence of now-vanished inhabited islands and larger land-masses, and the actual survival of a native white Pacific race which may be the descendants of the Lemurians. He believed there were several sub-continental land-masses. One, near Easter Island, was the most advanced, and was known to Polynesian tradition as "Motu Matira Hiva": it had affinities with Ancient Peru. The second one has New Zealand as its remnant; the third stretches from New Caledonia to Sumatra. There were, he said, several lesser ones. He found great similarities with Atlantis.  back to top





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